Diabetes Health Fact sheets

View our collection of Health Fact sheets on diabetes.

Continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGM)
A continuous glucose monitor (CGM) is a small device that sits against the skin, with a small sensor needle that measures blood  glucose levels and sends this information to a meter, smartphone or an insulin pump.

Every 3 – 4 months, children with type 1 diabetes will have a blood test called an HbA1c to indicate long term blood glucose control. Find out more about this test here.

Insulin pumps
An insulin pump is a small electronic device that is programmed to deliver insulin into the body through a fine needle or flexible cannula inserted under the skin. It is about the size of a mobile phone and can be hooked onto a belt or kept in your pocket. Fast acting insulin is used in the pump. The pump is programmed to deliver a steady rate of insulin continuously and a surge of insulin when food is eaten.
Insulin therapy
People who have type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin. This means that injecting insulin is a daily requirement of a child or adolescent who has type 1 diabetes.
Transition to the Adult Diabetes Service

When our patients turn 18 years of age or complete year 12, they will transition to the Adult Diabetes services.

The National Diabetes Services Scheme has a useful booklet providing information for people with type 1 diabetes on moving from the Adolescent to Adults’ Diabetes service. It included advice on schooling to further education or work, driving, moving out of home and living advice.

  • Moving on up (PDF)

Type 2 diabetes
PCH is the only tertiary referral centre for children with type 2 diabetes in Western Australia. While type 1 diabetes remains the most common form of diabetes in young people, the number of children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is increasing, particularly in high risk groups such as indigenous Australians.  Risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes include: 
  • ethnicity
  • obesity
  • puberty
  • family history
  • lifestyle.

In Western Australia approximately 50% of children with type 2 diabetes live in rural and remote locations and over one half of all children with type 2 diabetes are Indigenous.

The management of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents includes lifestyle intervention (physical activity and dietary education), self-management education (individual and family), medication and psychological care.

Metformin is an oral medication given to people with diabetes to improve insulin function.